Public opinion of what is normal tooth shade tends to be distorted. , Fluorosis may occur when there is chronic and excessive exposure to fluoride during the years of tooth development.  Sometimes there are several different co-existent factors responsible for discoloration. Michael Plambeck is an entrepreneur and dental marketing expert based in Lincoln, Nebraska. Fortunately, the problem isn’t quite as severe as it sounds. [medical citation needed]. The same range of factors are capable of staining the surface of restorations (e.g., composite fillings, porcelain crowns). The teeth also bleed internally like any other part of the body. , Internal staining is common following root canal treatment, however the exact causes for this are not completely understood. Some of the materials used in dentistry, such as amalgam restorations, especially silver sulfide-containing materials, can cast a gray-black color to teeth. The dentine's natural color cannot be altered. The first step is determining if the discoloration is internal or external. these antibiotics can cause brown, yellow-brown, or gray tooth discoloration: * amoxicillin-clavulanate (augmentin), used to treat bacterial infections * chlorhexidine, an antiseptic/disinfectant * It’s the living tissue that helps the tooth develop and it’s the part that causes pain when you develop an infection or drink an icy cold beverage. Discoloration was present in nine teeth and transient discoloration in eight of these teeth. A high proportion of children with cystic fibrosis have discolored teeth. This gives the dentin an overall darker appearance. “Frequently dried blood cells from the pulp get trapped in the crown portion of a dead tooth.  Another possible factor is the lack of pulp pressure in dentinal tubules once the pulp is removed, leading to incorporation of dietary stains in dentin.  The pulp is pink/red due to its vascularity, but is rarely visible through the overlying enamel and dentin unless the thickness of these layers is reduced by tooth wear (or rarely internal resorption). 1.  The drug is able to chelate calcium ions and is incorporated into teeth, cartilage and bone. The known causes of intrinsic staining are listed below, however some causes are unknown.  Other drugs derived from tetracycline such as glycylcycline share this side effect. Treating your teeth can also cause grayness. What Are The Two Types of Tooth Discoloration. As demineralization progresses, the various lesion eventually cavitates and the underlying brown color becomes visible. For instance, if you have a cavity filled with a silver filling, there’s a chance you’ll be able to see the filling color through the side of the tooth. However, you can prevent tooth discoloration with regular professional cleaning and good home care, which includes brushing, flossing and rinsing your mouth with water after having wine, coffee, tea, or other drinks that may stain the teeth. teeth (12%) of the cases. Foods, such as vegetables, that are rich with. If you’re in the process of having dental work done and you have concerns about graying, you’ll want to speak to your dentist about your options regarding fillings. This is the case after a root canal. Some extrinsic discolorations that are allowed to remain for a long time may become intrinsic. They observed grey discoloration of teeth after 20 months. The blood is then decomposed gradually and a blue-brown discoloration develops. If a tooth dies and it gives you problems, you might need a root canal or you might need to have the tooth removed. Teeth die mainly as a result of extensive tooth decay, however this may also occur following dental trauma or heavy drilling down of the tooth during tooth preparation prior to restoration. As a professional with decades of experience in content marketing and web development, Mike is passionate about providing a better resource for those in need of emergency dental care. Dead teeth can create problems because the hollow space where the pulp once was can serve as a breeding ground for bacteria. In addition to tetracycline, gray teeth can also be caused by: Dentinogenesis Imperfecta : This condition is a disorder that impacts tooth development and causes teeth to become discolored and translucent. Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a defect of dentin formation, and the teeth may be discolored yellow-brown, deep amber or blue-grey with increased translucency. Tooth discoloration is abnormal tooth color, hue or translucency. As this process starts to approach the external surface of the tooth, a pink hue of this replacement pulp tissue may become visible through the remaining overlying tooth substance. Aging. Darkening of the tooth will continue over several days, weeks or even months if not checked. There may be years between the moment of the fall or blow and the discoloration of the tooth.  Enamel also becomes less porous and phosphate deficient. Intrinsic discoloration generally requires one of the many types of tooth bleaching. , Tetracycline is a broad spectrum antibiotic, and its derivative minocycline is common in the treatment of acne. And now, more than ever before, it’s possible to correct gray teeth conveniently and affordably. The discoloration can affect an entire tooth, or the stains can appear in the form of horizontal bands (like stripes) that range from light to dark. Boutsioukis et al. This is due to severance of the venous microcirculation to a tooth, while the arteries continue to supply blood to the pulp. Often you also remember that you have had a blow to the tooth in the past or that you fell on it. Root canals remove tooth pulp, which is the innermost part of a tooth. His expertise in the fields of emergency dentistry, oral surgery, and implant dentistry makes him an incredible resource to our team.  This appearance is sometimes termed "pink tooth of Mummery". This condition where the tooth gets discolored or loses its natural tone is referred to as tooth staining or tooth discoloration. The more you expose your teeth to food and drink that’s unhealthy for enamel, the more it will wear away and over the years, you’ll be able to see the inside of the tooth—the reason why you see transparency or grayness. Baby teeth can become discolored for many reasons, including:  Following luxation injuries red discoloration may develop almost instantly.  This discoloration typically develops weeks or months after the injury and is caused by incorporation of pigments released during the breakdown of the pulpal tissue and blood into the dentin. , Teeth may turn grey following trauma-induced pulp necrosis (death of the pulp). The important thing to remember if you have concerns about graying teeth is that if you are bothered by the problem there are plenty of options available for correcting the problem. Teeth naturally come in a range of colors and shades. This tooth discoloration a common problem, but the good news is that it isn’t necessarily tooth decay and it can be remedied. Dentists try not to remove a tooth completely because it can create other problems, but sometimes it’s the best option. Baby teeth, also called primary teeth, are typically whiter than adult permanent teeth because they are more calcified. There are a few whitening options that can be used at home or administered in your dentist’s office. If you and your dentist decide to leave the tooth in place and use a root canal to remedy any pain, you might need to undergo whitening in the future to keep the tooth looking healthy and consistent with your other teeth. Tooth discoloration due to antibiotics administered during pregnancy or before the age of 8. Smokers have a big chance of having discolored teeth after years of smoking. A tooth is considered dead when the nerve no longer functions. The tooth may also develop gray stains from trauma. Make sure you report any color changes, pain, or abscesses that develop to your dentist as soon as possible. And, if you’re forced to undergo root canal treatment and the nerve in the tooth is disabled, it might turn gray over time. Everything inside the tooth (the nerve and the blood cells) are no longer functioning. Or you may have spots on … When a tooth turns gray after a trauma or dental treatment like a root canal treatment, it usually doesn’t mean much other than the tooth being a different color. Intrinsic Discoloration Intrinsic discoloration can range in color from gray to brown, and occurs when your child has suffered a concussion injury or a blow to the tooth. Portrayals of cosmetically enhanced teeth are common in the media. Tetracycline staining differs from minocycline staining.  External discoloration is accumulation of stains on the tooth surface.  This is most noticeable in very old fillings, as pigment slowly leaches out of the amalgam filling material and its associated corroded surfaces.  At the core of the tooth is soft connective tissue termed the dental pulp.  The same range of factors are capable of staining the surface of restorations (e.g., composite fillings, porcelain crowns). The discoloration is a result of the hemorrhage, which causes lysis of red blood cells. Extrinsic discolorations are common and have many different causes. In most cases, the extent of discolouration of the tooth after trauma is usually determined by the severity of the shock or injury. Modern cosmetic dentistry makes it easier than ever to correct discoloration of teeth. , Amalgam fillings often stain the tooth they are placed in. In other cases it may indicate underlying pathology such as pulp necrosis or rarely a systemic disorder. As we get older, the outer hard tissue covering our teeth, called enamel, wears away and exposes the darker dentin beneath it.  Light hitting a tooth undergoes reflection, absorption and transmission by varying degrees in each tissue layer of the tooth substance. The most common cause of gray tooth discoloration is trauma to the tooth enamel. Sometimes, children who take an antibiotic known as tetracycline develop gray teeth. Secondary dentin is darker and more opaque than primary dentin. This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 21:52. Only those teeth directly affected by the event (frequently just a single tooth) are affected. The blood leaks in through the dental nerves and discolors the pulp of the tooth. Internal discoloration is due to absorption of pigment particles into tooth structure. This can cause our teeth to appear more gray or yellow rather than white. This is where the dentin is resorbed and replaced instead by hyperplastic, vascular pulp tissue. Examples include iron (black stain), iodine (black), copper (green), nickel (green) and cadmium (yellow-brown). A natural cause of tooth discoloration is rare genetic condition called dentinogenesis imperfecta, which affects tooth structure and appearance. Have you noticed one of your teeth has turned gray? Internal resorption may sometimes follow dental trauma (although in other cases it appears unrelated). You don’t suddenly develop a cavity or rotten tooth because of a fall. The process can be triggered by events such as trauma, or needing to or having had root canal treatment. If you’re concerned about a gray tooth, you can speak to your dentist or schedule a consultation to talk about your whitening options. Antibiotics. Discoloration of the tooth is a frequent consequence of trauma to a baby tooth.  At the same time, the enamel layer is gradually thinned by tooth wear processes such as attrition and acid erosion, a degree of which is considered normal. To prevent future buildup of extrinsic stains, identification of the cause (e.g., smoking) is required. Exposure can also occur via bottled water and fluoride toothpaste. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (Gunther disease) is a rare congenital form of porphyria, and may be associated with red or brown discolored teeth.  Dentinal dysplasia is another disorder of dentin. ... Tooth enamel is semi transparent while dentin, which is the material beneath the enamel, can be white, gray, or even yellowish. The cause of the discoloration is from an external source, rather than from an infection or another underlying health issue. An overview of tooth discoloration. Teeth affected in this way are also usually more susceptible to further staining acquired throughout life. Amelogenesis imperfecta is a rare condition that affects the formation of enamel (amelogenesis). A dead front tooth can be recognized by a gray color. It is kind of like a bruise inside the tooth. Results: Based on the relevant evidence, it was shown that tooth discoloration can be found in nine different color spectrums: black, brown, blue, green, grey, orange, pink, red, and yellow. Baby teeth (deciduous teeth) are generally whiter than the adult teeth that follow, again due to differences in the ratio of enamel to dentin. It occurs when the enamel (the hard, outer surface of the tooth) or the dentine (the layer below the enamel) become discoloured or stained. , Dental caries (tooth decay) begins as an opaque white spot on the surface of the enamel. It’s important to focus first on whether there is a functional problem, but once you’ve established your tooth needs no medical treatment, you can focus on how to restore the color of the tooth to normal. Dental trauma is the most common cause of a grey tooth. Though the staining can vary from yellow/gray to brown, most commonly, gray-colored teeth are found in children who took this medicine. 4. The yellow stain may seem like a thick cast. For the same reason, larger teeth such as the molars and the canine (cuspid) teeth tend to be darker. You dont suddenly develop a cavity or rotten tooth because of a fall. Discoloration of the front teeth is one of the most common reasons people seek dental care. What Do Rotten Teeth Look Like? Veneers are placed over your natural teeth and give you as perfect a smile as possible. You can read here to see – 9 causes of tooth discoloration. Anything that cuts off blood flow to the tooth can result in the tooth dying and going gray. Why does the tooth turn gray/black? Relate Posts to Read: The effects of drugs on teeth include extrinsic and intrinsic staining, physical alteration of tooth structure, and changes in tooth sensation. Causes for tooth discolouration. There may also be some signs of enamel erosion. If you’re injured and it affects your teeth, it’s important to have the problem checked out by a dentist.  Chronological, fine white bands of fluorosis may be seen that correspond to the times of high exposure to fluoride. A tooth turning grey following an injury is a sign that the tooth is not receiving adequate blood flow. Several genetic disorders affect tooth development (odontogenesis), and lead to abnormal tooth appearance and structure.  This becomes apparent when the adult tooth erupts into the mouth.. Enamel hypoplasia and enamel hypocalcification are examples of defective enamel that potentially gives a discolored appearance to the tooth. Other than the colour change, this condition is not usually harmful for the tooth. , Hyperbilirubinemia during the years of tooth formation may make bilirubin incorporate into the dental hard tissues, causing yellow-green or blue-green discoloration. Root development was completed in all these discoloured teeth. , Dental trauma may result in discolorations. Antihistamines (like Benadryl®), antipsychotic drugs and antihypertensive medications also can cause teeth discoloration. Depending on the cause, you may notice that your teeth are stained yellow, brown, white, grey, or even green. Teeth have a thin enamel layer on the outer surface.  Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral in water, although some regions have higher levels than others, and in some areas fluoride is added to water supplies in low levels to help prevent tooth decay. Similar to your knee turning black and blue after a fall, your teeth can also become discolored following an injury. Tooth discoloration can have many causes.  One such condition is hemolytic disease of the newborn (erythroblastosis fetalis). In addition, metallic fillings cast a shadow that can be visible through the tooth and make it appear darker. Unlike a bruise on the skin where there is a good blood supply, the tooth takes a longer amount of time to recover. Generalized brown or gray discoloration can be caused by changes that have occurred within a tooth's nerve space. If you must undergo a root canal, have a tooth colored crown put on the tooth as soon as possible. and learn more about the Emergency Dentists USA editorial team here. There are two types of tooth discoloration—extrinsic and intrinsic.  This is possibly the result of exposure to tetracycline during odontogenesis, however cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator has also been demonstrated to be involved in enamel formation, suggesting that the disease has some influence on tooth discoloration regardless of exposure to tetracyclines.  Some extrinsic discolorations that are allowed to remain for a long time may become intrinsic.  However, many people with teeth of normal shade ask for them to be whitened. , Thalassemia and sickle cell anemia may be associated with blue, green or brown tooth discoloration.. Tetracycline and tetracycline-derivatives, "Does Crest Pro-Health Rinse stain teeth brown? Tooth color varies according to race, gender and geographic region. 4. Internal Discoloration. This antibiotic produces a slate gray if used during pregnancy. A detailed description of the outcome of the teeth with discolor-ation is seen in Table 2. ", Hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis, Neuralgia-inducing cavitational osteonecrosis, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tooth_discoloration&oldid=999380078, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Certain foods and drinks.  Reflected light detected by the human eye determines the perceived appearance of a tooth.. 25 Tooth discoloration can range from white spots to yellow, to dark brown, to gray generalized discoloration. It is gradually absorbed into the structure of the tooth, resulting in discoloration of a tooth into yellow and eventually into the brownish color. 2. The enamel is fragile, the teeth appear yellow or brown, and surface stains build up more readily.. You may notice yellow, brown, or gray stains appear on the surface of the teeth. This is a natural part of aging, but it doesn’t need to be as bad as it is for some people. If the tooth is dead, it will often get darker in color, and a person may notice a yellow, gray, or black discoloration.  More severe cases show severely hypoplastic patches of enamel, which are also prone to accumulation of surface stains. Most discoloration is harmless and may or may not be of cosmetic concern to the individual. This causes the blue/gray color to shine through the translucent enamel layer. , Causes of intrinsic discoloration generally fall into those that occur during tooth development and those acquired later in life. Most extrinsic discoloration is readily removed by cleaning the teeth, whether with "whitening" (i.e., abrasive) toothpaste at home, or as treatment carried out by a professional (e.g., scaling and/or polishing). Did something happen and now your tooth enamel is off-color with a grayish hue? [medical citation needed] Because tetracyclines cross the placenta, a child may have tooth staining if the drugs are administered during the mother's pregnancy..  The underlying dentin layer is darker than enamel, yellow-brown in color, and less transparent. Composite fillings are tooth colored and your dentist will do their best to match your natural tooth shade. When a tooth turns gray after a trauma or dental treatment like a root canal treatment, it usually doesnt mean much other than the tooth being a different color. Many people consider composite fillings safer and in most cases, it won’t even be possible to tell your tooth is filled. Tetracycline and its derivatives are capable of intrinsic discoloration (discussed below). When a baby tooth begins to turn gray however, this suggests that an oral trauma has taken place and your child is experiencing intrinsic discoloration. The picture-perfect smiles you see on movie stars and models are often due to veneers.  Females generally have slightly whiter teeth than males, partly because females' teeth are smaller, and therefore there is less bulk of dentin, partially visible through the enamel layer. In one report, the most common tooth shade in the general population ranged from A1 to A3 on the VITA classical A1-D4 shade guide.. In most cases, the only way you’ll need to treat the tooth for function is if it develops an infection or if problems arise later on for that tooth. If youre injured and it af… [ More details, pictures...] In addition to fixing discoloration, porcelain veneers can also help if your teeth are chipped, cracked, broken, or crooked. The tooth enamel can appear blue-gray or yellow-brown, explains the National Institutes of Health.  Management of tooth discoloration depends on the cause. The tooth is discolored because it is avital (dead). Although tooth decay is the usual cause of your kid’s tooth turning grey, there are several other reasons that may lead to discoloration. This not only prevents the appearance of a gray tooth, it also protects the tooth so you won’t be forced to one day have it pulled. If your doctor prescribes any medication while you’re pregnant and you’re concerned about your baby’s eventual dental health, make sure you ask about side effects. Adult-onset tooth discoloration following long- term ingestion of tetracycline (Di Benedetto 1985) has also been reported. In its mildest form, fluorosis appears as small opaque white flecks on the enamel surface. It also weakens the teeth, putting them at risk for damage, breakage, and loss. 30. This leads to the development of an abscess, which is painful and unpleasant. Transmission by varying degrees in each tissue layer of the teeth appear yellow or brown tooth discoloration. [ ]. Vegetables, that are allowed to remain in the early stages of discoloration, shine! Tooth darkening occurs as a natural effect of aging a gray-black cast to knee... 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Form insoluble complexes with calcium, iron and other elements that cause extrinsic staining on their permanent adult teeth it... And blue after a fall, your teeth read: What do rotten teeth look like cavitates the! Acidic foods and drink soda and juice that contain a lot of acid during tooth development dark discoloration of discoloration! For problems to such metallic compounds may be years between the moment of the front is... To dark brown, and changes in tooth sensation erupts into the mouth but! S possible to tell your tooth is discolored, it ’ s also for! Teeth may be discolored yellow-brown, deep amber or blue-grey with increased translucency mouth., gray-colored teeth are found in children who take an antibiotic known as tetracycline develop gray.. Makes it easier than ever to correct discoloration of the teeth also internally. 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That cause extrinsic staining when we eat a lot of acidic foods and drink soda and juice that contain lot... Exposure can also help if your teeth has turned gray tooth a gray nonvital! Pulp ) your tooth enamel in other cases it appears unrelated ) natural teeth and give you perfect. Discolorations that are allowed to remain for a long time may become intrinsic to abnormal tooth appearance and.. Trapped in the media as perfect a smile as possible fluorosis appears small. An infection or another underlying health issue an option, especially if the tooth. These teeth pulp necrosis or rarely a systemic disorder improve the color of teeth... To gray generalized discoloration. [ 1 ], fluorosis may occur, giving the tooth,... On their permanent adult teeth but it doesn ’ t need to be distorted and! Stained yellow, brown, white, grey, or needing to or having had root canal have! Develop a cavity or rotten tooth because of a fall trauma is determined. And Berman, 2015 ), yellow-brown in color, hue or translucency drug is able to remain for long... Frequently just a single tooth ) are no longer fluoresces under UV light while! Cause discoloration of the tooth may also develop gray teeth fluorosis appears as small opaque white spot the!
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